Nlm Format Bibliography Internet

A. Entire Bibliographies

B. Parts of Bibliographies

Examples of Citations to Entire Bibliographies

1. Standard citation with bibliography in the title

Khan N, Nakajima N, Vanderburg WH, compilers. Healthy work: an annotated bibliography. Lanham (MD): Scarecrow Press, Inc.; 2004. 376 p. 617 citations.

Morton LT, Moore RJ, compilers. A bibliography of medical and biomedical biography. 3rd ed. Burlington (VT): Ashgate; 2005. 425 p. 3740 citations.

2. Standard citation without the word bibliography in the title (content type added)

Grayson L, compiler. Animals in research: for and against [bibliography]. London: British Library; c2000. 320 p.

Blanchard DA, compiler. The anti-abortion movement: references and resources [bibliography]. New York: Prentice Hall International; c1996. 378 p.

3. Bibliography with optional full first names for compilers

Khan, Namir; Nakajima, Nina; Vanderburg, Willem H., compilers. Healthy work: an annotated bibliography. Lanham (MD): Scarecrow Press, Inc.; 2004. 376 p. 617 citations.

4. Bibliography with compilers and editors

Jackson E, compiler. Safer sex guidelines bibliography: healthy sexuality and HIV; an annotated bibliography for educators and counselors. Allen B, editor. Ottawa (ON): Canadian AIDS Society; 1995. 17 p.

Sleet DA, Hopkins K, compilers and editors. Bibliography of behavioral science research in unintentional injury prevention. Atlanta (GA): Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (US), National Center for Injury Prevention and Control, Division of Unintentional Injury Prevention; 2004. 115 p. 900 citations from 1980-2003.

5. Bibliography with organization as compiler

Lewin Group, compiler. Annotated bibliography for managed behavioral health care, 1989-1999. Rockville (MD): Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (US), Center for Mental Health Services, Office of Managed Care; 2000. 171 p. (DHHS publication; no. (SMA) 00-3424).

6. Bibliography with editors and other secondary authors, but no compilers

Lee MC, editor. West Nile virus: overview and abstracts [bibliography]. New York: Nova Science Publishers, Inc; 2003. 152 p.

Lavallee C, Robinson E, editors. The health of the Eastern James Bay Cree: annotated bibliography = La sante des Cris de l'Est de la Baie James: bibliographie annotee. Orr M, illustrator. Montreal (QC): Montreal General Hospital, Northern Quebec Module; 1993. 71 p. English, French.

7. Bibliography with no compilers or editors

Teaching hospital costs: an annotated bibliography of the costs of medical education, patient care, and research at teaching hospitals. Washington: Association of American Medical Colleges; 2000. 165 p.

8. Bibliography with compiler affiliation(s) included

Zorn M (National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD), Rowland JH (National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, MD), Varricchio CG (National Institute of Nursing Research, Bethesda, MD), compilers. Symptom management in cancer: pain, depression, and fatigue [bibliography]. Bethesda (MD): National Library of Medicine (US); 2002 Jul. (Current bibliographies in medicine; no. 2002-4). 1803 citations from January 1990 through June 2002, plus selected earlier citations.

9. Bibliography with title in a language other than English

Mori K, compiler. Chusu shinkeikei senten ijo bunkenshu: kore made no shinpo to kongo no kadai. Tokyo: Nyuronsha; 2004. 242 p. Japanese.

Poblacion y empleo en Bolivia (bibliografia anotada). La Paz (Bolivia): Consejo Nacional de Poblacion; 1989. 414 p. Spanish.

Zubritskii AN, compiler. Tabak i tabakokurenie: osnovnoi bibliograficheskii ukazatel otechestvennoi i zarubezhnoi literatury. Moscow: Izdatelskaia gruppa GEOTAR-Media; 2005. 335 p. Russian.

Mane Garzon F, Burgues Roca S, compilers. Publicaciones medicas uruguayas de los siglos XVIII y XIX [bibliography]. Montevideo (Uruguay): Oficina del Libro AEM; 1996. 253 p. Spanish.

with translation

Mori K, compiler. Chusu shinkeikei senten ijo bunkenshu: kore made no shinpo to kongo no kadai [Bibliographies of congenital central nervous system diseases]. Tokyo: Nyuronsha; 2004. 242 p. Japanese.

Poblacion y empleo en Bolivia (bibliografia anotada) [Population and employment in Bolivia (an annotated bibliography)]. La Paz (Bolivia): Consejo Nacional de Poblacion; 1989. 414 p. Spanish.

Zubritskii AN, compiler. Tabak i tabakokurenie: osnovnoi bibliograficheskii ukazatel otechestvennoi i zarubezhnoi literatury [Tobacco and tobacco smoking: bibliographic index of the Russian and foreign literature]. Moscow: Izdatelskaia gruppa GEOTAR-Media; 2005. 335 p. Russian.

Mane Garzon F, Burgues Roca S, compilers. Publicaciones medicas uruguayas de los siglos XVIII y XIX [Uruguayan medical publications of the 18th and 19th centuries] [bibliography]. Montevideo (Uruguay): Oficina del Libro AEM; 1996. 253 p. Spanish.

10. Bibliography with title in multiple languages

Farren M, compiler. Infant mortality and health in Latin America: an annotated bibliography of the 1979-82 literature. Ottawa (ON): International Development Research Centre; 1984. 172 p. English, Spanish, Portuguese, French. 256 citations.

Beauge G, Bendiab A, Labib A, Longuenesse E, Roussillon A, Quiles J, Weyland P, compilers. Migrations internationales au Moyen-Orient: 1975-1986. Bibliographie [International migrations in the Middle East: 1975-1986. A bibliography]. Aix-en-Provence (France): Universites d'Aix-Marseille, Institut de Recherches et d'Etudes sur le Monde Arabe et Musulman; 1987. 186 p. French, German.

11. Bibliography with titles with parallel text in two languages

Lavallee C, Robinson E, editors. The health of the Eastern James Bay Cree: annotated bibliography = La sante des Cris de l'Est de la Baie James: bibliographie annotee. Orr M, illustrator. Montreal (QC): Montreal General Hospital, Northern Quebec Module; 1993. 71 p. English, French.

12. Bibliography with edition

Clamp CG, Gough S, Land L, compilers. Resources for nursing research: an annotated bibliography. 4th ed. London: Sage Publication, Limited; 2004. 432 p. Approximately 3,000 entries.

Marlatt GE, compiler. Chemical, biological, and nuclear terrorism/warfare: a bibliography. Rev. and updated. [Monterey (CA)]: Naval Postgraduate School (US), Dudley Knox Library; 2003 Sep. 297 p.

Prestwidge KJ, compiler. Bibliography of African Americans, Native Americans, Hispanics in engineering, science and the health professions. 5th ed., rev. Flushing (NY): Huespin Productions; 2002 Oct. 119 p.

13. Bibliography with well-known place of publication

Bondi K, editor. Chronic fatigue syndrome: overview abstracts and bibliography. New York: Nova Science Publishers; c2003. 236 p.

Horowitz LM, Schreiber MD, Hare I, Walker VR, Talley AL, editors. Psychological factors in emergency medical services for children: abstracts of the psychological, behavioral, and medical literature, 1991-1998 [bibliography]. Washington: American Psychological Association; c1999. 98 p.

14. Bibliography with geographic qualifier added to place of publication for clarity

Arashvili NG, editor. Breast cancer: an annotated guide to the current literature [bibliography]. Commack (NY): Nova Science Publishers; c1995. 127 p.

Adipositas 1988-2003 [bibliography]. Trier (Germany): Universitat Trier, Zentrum fur Psychologische Information und Dokumentation; 2004. 177 p. German.

15. Bibliography with place of publication inferred

Shakman SH, compiler. Automed A to Z: index to the literature 1894-1982 [bibliography]. [Santa Monica (CA)]: Institute of Science; c1994-1998. 96 leaves. Bibliography of 1690 citations on autohemotherapy, autogenous vaccines, and the works of E.C. Rosenow.

16. Bibliography with no place of publication found

Patterson KD, compiler. Infectious diseases in twentieth-century Africa: a bibliography of their distribution and consequences. [place unknown]: Crossroads Press; c1979. 251 p.

17. Bibliography with publisher with subsidiary department/division named

Becker B, Wechsler L, Hoolihan C, Weimer MF, compilers. The Bernard Becker collection in ophthalmology: an annotated catalog [bibliography]. St. Louis (MO): Washington University School of Medicine, Bernard Becker Medical Library; c1996. 180 p.

Bador G, Thoolen H, Martin SF, Allard D, compilers. A selected bibliography on refugee health. Geneva (Switzerland): United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, Centre for Documentation on Refugees; 1991. 184 p.

18. Bibliography with national or governmental agency as publisher, with country qualifier added

Advancing women's status: women and men together? Gender, society and development [bibliography]. Amsterdam (Netherlands): Royal Tropical Institute (NL); 1995. 200 p.

Yuan FL, compiler. A selected bibliography on urbanization in China. Washington: Bureau of the Census (US), Center for International Research; 1991. 182 p. (CIR staff paper; no. 61).

19. Bibliography with joint publication

Haynes C, compiler. Ethnic minority health: a selected, annotated bibliography. Lanham (MD): Scarecrow Press; c1997. 503 p. A joint publication of the Medical Library Association.

Rudd RE, Colton Tayla, Schacht R, compilers. An overview of medical and public health literature addressing literacy issues: an annotated bibliography [microfiche]. Cambridge (MA): Harvard Graduate School of Education; 2000. 1 microfiche: black & white, 4 x 6 in. Jointly published by the National Center for the Study of Adult Learning and Literacy, Washington.

20. Bibliography with no publisher found

Eide M, compiler. Adult survivors of incest/childhood sexual abuse: a selected, annotated list of books [bibliography]. 3rd ed. Ypsilanti (MI): [publisher unknown]; c1997. 110 p.

21. Bibliography with no place of publication or publisher found

Rykov M, Salmon D, compilers. Bibliography for music therapy in palliative care 1963-1996. [place unknown: publisher unknown]; 1996. 15 p.

22. Bibliography with standard date of publication

Shenk D, Sokolovsky J, compilers. Cultural perspectives on aging [bibliography]. Washington: Association for Gerontology in Higher Education; 1997. 8 p.

23. Bibliography with month and year of publication

Reinhardt V, Reinhardt A, compilers. Annotated bibliography on refinement and environmental enrichment for primates kept in laboratories. 8th ed. Washington: Animal Welfare Institute; 2005 Jan. 89 p.

24. Bibliography with multiple years

Shakman SH, compiler. Automed A to Z: index to the literature 1894-1982 [bibliography]. [Santa Monica (CA)]: Institute of Science; c1994-1998. 96 leaves. Bibliography of 1690 citations on autohemotherapy, autogenous vaccines, and the works of E.C. Rosenow.

25. Bibliography with date of publication estimated

Patton LT, compiler. Community health centers: a working bibliography. Washington: National Association of Community Health Centers; [1989?]. 76 p.

26. Bibliography with no date of publication, but a date of copyright

Bondi K, editor. Chronic fatigue syndrome: overview abstracts and bibliography. New York: Nova Science Publishers; c2003. 236 p.

27. Bibliography with no date of publication or copyright found

Bustad LK, Hegreberg GA, Padgett GA, compilers. Naturally occurring animal models of human disease: a bibliography. Washington: National Academy of Sciences (US), Institute of Laboratory Animal Resources; [date unknown]. 99 p.

28. Bibliography with standard pagination

Brogdon J, Olsen WC, editors. The contemporary and historical literature of food science and human nutrition [bibliography]. Ithaca (NY): Cornell University Press; c1995. 296 p.

29. Bibliography published in more than one volume

Nation EF, Roland CG, McGovern JP, compilers. An annotated checklist of Osleriana [bibliography]. Montreal (QC): McGill University, Osler Library; 2000. 2 vol.

30. No page numbers on the pages of the bibliography

Shakman SH, compiler. Automed A to Z: index to the literature 1894-1982 [bibliography]. [Santa Monica (CA)]: Institute of Science; c1994-1998. 96 leaves. Bibliography of 1690 citations on autohemotherapy, autogenous vaccines, and the works of E.C. Rosenow.

31. Bibliography in a series

Mullner RM, Jewell M, compilers. A bibliography of recent works on home health care. Lewiston (NY): Edwin Mellen Press; c2000. 184 p. (Studies in health and human services; vol. 37).

Yuan FL, compiler. A selected bibliography on urbanization in China. Washington: Bureau of the Census (US), Center for International Research; 1991. 182 p. (CIR staff paper; no. 61).

32. Bibliography in a series with series editor's name included

Selden CR, Kelliher R, compilers. Distance education in public health [bibliography]. Bethesda (MD): National Library of Medicine (US); 2003 Dec. (Patrias K, editor. Current bibliographies in medicine; no. 2003-3). 471 citations from January 1998 through October 2003.

33. Bibliography in a microform

Rudd RE, Colton Tayla, Schacht R, compilers. An overview of medical and public health literature addressing literacy issues: an annotated bibliography [microfiche]. Cambridge (MA): Harvard Graduate School of Education; 2000. 1 microfiche: black & white, 4 x 6 in.

Williams LA, compiler. Family violence and American Indians/Alaska Natives: a report to the Indian Health Service Office of Women's Health [bibliography on microfiche]. [Bethesda (MD)]: Department of Health and Human Services (US), Indian Health Service, Office of Women's Health; 2002 Oct. 96 p. 1 microfiche: black & white, 4 x 6 in.

34. Bibliography with note on number of citations, date range

Zorn MA, Allen MP, Horowitz AM, compilers. Understanding health literacy and its barriers [bibliography]. Bethesda (MD): National Library of Medicine (US); 2004. 38 p. 651 citations from January 1998 through November 2003.

35. Bibliography that is government sponsored

Kolyada L, compiler. Health systems strengthening and HIV/AIDS: annotated bibliography and resources. Bethesda (MD): Abt Associates; 2004 Mar. 75 p. Contract No.: HRN-C-OO-95-00024. 101 citations from 1995 to 2004. Funded by the US Agency for International Development.

36. Bibliography with availability statement

Cumulative trauma disorders in the workplace: bibliography. Cincinnati (OH): National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (US), Education and Information Division; 1995. 209 p. Available from: US Government Printing Office, Washington, DC; HE 20.7114:T 69.

Guiterrez MK, compiler. Assessing children for the presence of a disability: resources you can use [bibliography]. 2nd ed. Washington: National Information Center for Children and Youth with Disabilities (US); 2002. 10 p. Available from: ERIC, Lanham, MD; ED473542.

37. Bibliography accompanied by a CD-ROM, disk, or other medium

Jones R, editor. Bibliography of commonwealth apiculture. London: Commonwealth Secretariat; 2005. 348 p. Accompanied by: 1 CD-ROM.

Sacks JM, Bilaniuk MT, Gendron JM, editors. Bibliography of psychodrama: inception to date. New York: Psychodrama Center of New York; c1995. 129 p. Accompanied by: 2 disks: 3 1/2 in. One disk is for an IBM Personal Computer, the other is for a Macintosh.

38. Bibliography with other supplemental notes

An album of publications of BIRPERHT [bibliography]. Dhaka (Bangladesh): BIRPERHT; 1997. 40 p. (BIRPERHT publication; no. 114). BIRPERHT stands for Bangladesh Institute of Research for Promotion of Essential & Reproductive Health and Technologies.

Beguin Stockli D, compiler. Genitale Verstummelung von Frauen: eine Bibliographie [Female genital mutilation: a bibliography]. Bern (Switzerland): Institut fur Ethnologie der Universitat Bern; 1993. 72 p. German. Located at: National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD; 1996 C-377.

Citation Rules with Examples for Parts of Bibliographies

Components/elements are listed in the order they should appear in a reference. An R after the component name means that it is required in the citation; an O after the name means it is optional.

Bibliography (R) | Name and Number/Letter of the Part (R) | Title of the Part (R) | Location (Pagination) of the Part (R)

Name and Number/Letter of the Part for a Bibliography (required)

General Rules for Name and Number/Letter

  • Enter the name of the part, such as Chapter or Appendix

  • Do not abbreviate names. For example, convert Chap. to Chapter.

  • Follow the name with any accompanying number or letter, such as Chapter 12 or Appendix A

  • Use arabic numbers only. For example: convert VI or Six to 6.

  • End name and number/letter information with a comma and a space

Specific Rules for Name and Number/Letter

Box 56

Non-English names for parts.

Box 57

No letter or number follows the name.

Examples for Name and Number/Letter

National Library of Medicine - Citing Medicine

Citing Medicine: The NLM Style Guide for Authors, Editors, and Publishers

Citing Medicine (2007 - ) updates and supersedes versions of the original NLM Recommended Formats. You may view and download the publication free; the NLM does not make a printed copy available. NLM updates Citing Medicine periodically; join the CITINGMED LISTSERV for alerts to additions and changes.

Citing Medicine provides instructions and examples for formatting bibliographic citations for different types of published and unpublished materials. These materials range from traditional journal articles and books to electronic formats such as online journals, Web pages, and blog posts. Citing Medicine does not provide in-text citation styles.

Citing Medicine gives information for constructing citations at three levels. The levels are:

  1. Diagrammed Citation - You may simply want to know how to format a citation. The picture of the sample citation and the broad guidelines (the Introduction) may be enough.
  2. General Rules and Examples - You may need to view the General Rules and Examples sections for more information. We explain the structure of citations and include a variety of citations (Examples) for different circumstances.
  3. Specific Rules - You may need to review the Specific Rules to solve a specific problem, such as handling non-English citations.

If you only need a few citation examples, the NLM has a page with sample references you may find easier to use. This is the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) Recommendations for the Conduct, Reporting, Editing and Publication of Scholarly Work in Medical Journals: Sample References. This page has over 50 examples for commonly cited types of materials.

Your comments and suggestions are welcome. Please submit them to us using the Contact NLM form. At some point, you might see your question used for an example or clarification in the publication.

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