Pros and Cons of Genetic Engineering
Genetic engineering entails manipulating an organism’s gene indirectly using techniques such as molecular cloning to alter the nature and structure of genes. It can change an organism’s characteristics through DNA manipulation. Human beings ought to consider the pros and cons of genetic engineering before using it.
Pros of Genetic Engineering
First, it leads to better growth rate, taste and nutrition of crops like tomatoes, potatoes, rice and soybean. Genetically engineering produces new variants with increased yield and improved nutritional qualities. Genetically engineered crops can survive on lands that are currently not suited for cultivation. Genetic manipulation can be carried out to meliorate the nutritional value and increase the rate of growth of crops. The science of genetic engineering, also referred to as foods Biotechnology, nay be utilized to ameliorate the taste of food.
Genetic engineering produces crops which are pest-resistant and have a longer shelf life. Engineered seeds can endure harsh climatic conditions and are resistant to pests. At-DBF2, a plant gene, can be inserted into tobacco and tomato cells to increase their survival in harsh climatic and soil conditions. Biotechnology may be utilized to slow down food spoilage process. This results in a greater shelf life of vegetables and fruits.
Genetic modification can be utilized to produce entirely new foods. In food, genetic engineering is able to produce completely new substances like proteins and other nutrients. Modification of gene in foods can increase their medicinal value. This makes home-produced edible vaccines.
Another advantage is the modification of genetic traits in human beings. Human genetic engineering science modifies human beings genotypes before birth. This process can be utilized to manipulate some traits in people. Genetic engineering can be employed to suppress negative traits while boosting positive ones. Positive genetic engineering is concerned with the enhancement of positive individual traits. This includes increasing human capacity or longevity. Conversely, negative genetic engineering is concerned with the quelling of negative human traits such as some genetic diseases.
Genetic engineering can in the modification of human DNA. If discovered, genes responsible for particular human qualities can be inserted into the genotypes of other humans by artificial means. This brings about desirable functional and structural changes in such individuals.
Cons of Genetic Engineering
Genetic Engineering has some cons as well. One, it may impede nutritional value. Genetic engineering in food contaminates crop genes. Crops that are genetically engineered may take the place of natural weeds and thus harm natural plants. Unwanted genetic mutations may lead to crop allergies.
Another disadvantage of genetic engineering is that it may introduce harmful pathogens. Horizontal gene transfer may bring about new pathogens. While it raises plant’s immunity to diseases, the resistant genes may be transferred to harmful pathogens.
Genetic engineering may result in genetic defects. In humans, gene therapy can have various side effects. In an attempt to treat one defect, the therapy may result in another. Isolating cells associated with a single trait is very difficult since each cell influences numerous characteristics.
Genetic engineering is detrimental to genetic diversity. It can hamper human diversity. Cloning may have negative consequences to individuality. What is more, such procedures may not be within the means of everyone. This makes gene therapy unfeasible for the commoner.
As seen in the discussion, genetic engineering is beneficial but it manipulates the natural. It alters what is natural to produce completely new “creatures”. Human beings ought to consider the pros and cons of genetic engineering before using it.
Arguably, technology has changed various aspects of human activities. As a matter of fact, many beliefs that technologies have brought a lot of tremendous developments that are more applicable and influential to human beings. Cloning and genetic engineering are among the many developments issues brought by technology. Many view that the development of genetic engineering and cloning holds the potential to solve several humankind problems. On the other hand, the development of these aspects is seen as the potential that is building and developing unchecked dangers. Hence, these views present both the positive and negative impacts of genetic engineering as a method of improving the circumstance of humans. Generally, cloning and genetic engineering opens an entire realm of issues related to biology, allowing scientists to be in a position of helping human beings, but these issues are not without negative impacts on humans.
Cloning and genetic engineering have improved and solved various human circumstances n the world today. In fact, cloning finds many of its application in amplification of DNA, genetic fingerprinting, as well as modification of genetic makeup in humans. As a matter of fact, cloning through genetic makeup leads to introduction of positive traits in humans, and the elimination of undesirable traits. Perhaps, cloning and genetic engineering has improved and solved the life of humans through human organs development; hence, the life’s of people has been made safer and longer. One of the arguments for cloning is that it helps in organ replacement. Whereby, vital human organs in the human body are cloned to serve as backup operating system in the body of human beings. The presence of cloning is one of the lifesavers, for example, when some of the body organs such as heart and kidney fails, it can be replaced through cloning of the body organ (Nicholl, 2008).
Genetic engineering has tremendous use in production of food. In the third world countries many people are suffering from malnutrition and hunger; hence, genetic engineering has come to solve these human problems. Undeniably, the world population is tremendously expanding meaning food supply will automatically reduce due to high demand. GMO (Genetically modified food) is a solution to this human problem. This is because genetically modified food has the power to resist herbicides and pesticides, thereby leading to a reduction of pollutant chemicals in the environment. In addition, GMO manufacture has the power to make their pesticides that send off insects. The end results of these characteristics are the increment of yield, which automatically reduces starvation in the globe (Stanley, 2000).
Through genetic engineering, gene therapy has been made possible making it a convenient method to eliminate human problems. Gene therapy is used in treatment of genetic diseases affecting humans; this is carried out through genetic modification. Proponents assert that gene therapy has helped humans because it is cost effective and reasonable method of treating various gene diseases. The process does not require to be administered continuously meaning it is remarkably efficient. As a matter of fact, genetic engineering methods eliminate human suffering due to fatal, painful and debilitating genetic diseases. Germ-line gene therapy is also possible because of genetic engineering; this refers to the replacement or removal of faulty genes. Perhaps, it eliminates costly and destructive disease from the populace. Hence, proponents believe it is the best method to curb and eliminate human suffering (Russell, 2012).
In addition, cloning and genetic engineering has led to rejuvenation in human life. Advocates of cloning assert that this type of technology help in getting rid of all physical body issues that come up with age. For example, it eliminates wriggles among the old people leading to emotional and psychological. Moreover, humans who have burns and injuries in their body are the greatest beneficiaries of cloning. They have a chance of receiving skin tissues that eliminate the burns. In some cases, human beings are infertile and cannot have children. Cloning is one of the solutions to most infertile couples (Nicholl, 2008). Couples undergo emotional and physical pain when undergoing infertility treatment; cloning eliminates these problems, putting them in a situation to have children that are genetically theirs. Cloning is also helpful in the genetic research, this is because the technology behind cloning enables researchers to understand the effects of genes that humans have, and composition of genes. In a wider perspective, cloning helps in eliminating genetic diseases.
On the other hand, scholars and scientists assert that cloning comes with some negative impacts to humans. In fact, to many, cloning interferes with the natural process of creating children. The modification that takes place in humans may lead to the creation of smarter humans, which become problematic to those who are not products of cloning. Cloning does not give room to natural gene diversity to take place; cloning is only there to produce identical genes, meaning it hinders the process of gene replication, thus impeding diversity of genes. Hence, the beauty that lies on diversity and ability to adapt is eliminated. Family structure is important to the life of humans but cloning totally destabilizes the structure of family. Cloning is there to invite malpractices among medical practitioners and in society (Stanley, 2000). Hence, based on human ethic cloning takes away the ethical issues that are crucial to human, it devalues humans and the entirely undermines the importance of human existence.
Genetic engineering influences the life of humans negatively. The use of genetically modified food is believed to react with the human body in negative ways. In fact, the side effects are unknown, but it has been demonstrated has a factor that increases the risk to human health by causing cancer and other human diseases. Furthermore, genetic engineering corrupts the supply of food in the globe (Russell, 2012). Many companies have utilized the production of food using technology, whereby they focus on profits at the expense of human health. Genetic engineering will create organisms that human beings will not have defense against, leading to evolution chaos.
Conclusively, technology in the globe is a double-edged-sword, which needs to be taken care of responsibly. Cloning and genetic engineering are outcomes of technology; hence, it has both positive and negative impacts on the issues of humans. Proponents in support of cloning and genetic engineering assert that it is one method that holds the potential to eradicate and solve humankind problems. On a positive note, genetic engineering and cloning improve human circumstances by reducing food shortage, treating diseases, reducing costs, solving infertility problems, curbs human suffering, increases lifespan, as well as eliminating physical damages such as burns and wrinkles. These changes cause by cloning and genetic engineering has changed human live positively. On the other hand…