Industrial Revolution 19th Century Essays

How The Industrial Revolution Changed Society In The 19th Century

The Industrial Revolution changed society entirely during the 19th century. It encouraged the transition from agricultural labor to industrial labor, such as factory work. With this transition came urbanization, great poverty, and class struggle. Industrialization led to a reduction in the living standards of workers, widespread malnutrition, and eventually the deterioration of one’s life expectancy. The factory workers were stuck in a vicious cycle of poverty and the inability to escape it. Karl Marx’s ideas and theories about class struggle would eventually change how workers thought of their role in society. His theories would bring about revolutions and drastic changes to society.
Karl Marx was born in the early 19th century and devoted a large chunk of his career to developing the ideas and theories that are now known as Marxism. Marx though that capitalism was the main cause of the class struggle that came along with the Industrial Revolution. Marx called capitalism, “a dictatorship of the bourgeoisie” and claimed that the wealthy classes ran society for their own prosperity and benefit (Karl Marx Biography). He believed that if capitalism endured, society would collapse and he was certain that socialism would rise. Marx was a strong proponent of socialism and proclaimed that the implementation of socialism would, eventually, bring about a classless society. He also believed that the working classes should create a revolt against the upper level classes, defined by capitalism, and bring social change into the new society (Karl Marx Biography).
In the mid-19th century, Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels wrote a short publication that contained their theories about society and how they thought a capitalist society would eventually be replaced by a socialist one. This publication, The Communist Manifesto, was so important because it became “the touchstone of Marxist and communist revolutions all over...

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The Economic Changes in England During Eighteenth Century That Caused The Industrial Revolution

2637 words - 11 pages The first phase of the industrial revolution was a period(1760-1800) when the working conditions changed by going from the domestic system to the factory system. The factory system involves new technologies and an overall growth in the economy. England encouraged radical change in the economy during the 18th century. These economic changes effected the social and industrial aspect of the 18th century English society. There were several reasons...

A Document Based Essay Question explaining the Industrial Revolution during the 1800s. -how the US changed during the Revolution and the different problems it faced

712 words - 3 pages During the late 1800s, the United States economy changed due to new inventions, remarkably rapid growth, and new forms of communication and transportation. These benefits brought about changes with new inventions. New inventions and manufacturing brought about more jobs in different industries, one being textiles. Some of the problems faced were child labor and low wages.Throughout the industrial revolution, there were different...

The Industrial Leaders of the 19th Century Should be Admired for their Work

885 words - 4 pages The Industrial Leaders of the 19th Century Should be Admired for their Work The industrial leaders, Robber Barons, of the 19th century are men who are very respected and admired. Andrew Carnegie was a boy from Scotland who came over to this country with nothing. He continued to save and work his way up in the industry until he had complete control over the steel industry. John D. Rockefeller was also one who came from an ordinary home....

Notes on Latin American Independence, 19th century nationalism, and Industrial revolution (G.H 3)

1288 words - 5 pages Latin American Independence*Inspired by Enlightenment ideals, the people of Latin America rebelled against Spanish & Portuguese rule in the early 19th century. Rebels in the Spanish colonies waged a series of hand-fought military campaigns to gain their...

To What Extent did the Values of the Enlightenment Fuel an 'Industrial Revolution' in Britain in the Late Eighteenth Century and Early Nineteenth Century?

1751 words - 7 pages Also known as 'The Age of Reason', the Enlightenment is a term used to describe a period emerging from centuries of darkness and ignorance into a new age enlightened by reason, science, and a respect for humanity. Although the Enlightenment is usually associated with the eighteenth century, it's roots go back much further and it is important to understand how the values of the enlightenment were shaped. Works such as Essay Concerning Human...

The second half of the nineteenth century was the height of the American Industrial Revolution.

594 words - 2 pages The second half of the nineteenth century was the height of the American Industrial Revolution. The United States was looking to become one of the largest industrial...

To what extent were the following 19th Century industrial leaders either "Robber Barons" or "Industrial Statesmen"? Andrew Carnegie, John Rockefeller, Cornelius Vanderbilt

523 words - 2 pages Many have debated that the industrial leaders following the 19th Century were "Robber Barron's". However, in this very competitive time period, many new businesses were being formed. It took talented businessmen such as Vanderbilt, Carnegie, and Rockefeller to get ahead and keep the companies running, building America into what it is today, the most powerful nation in the world.

American Capitalist Society In The 19th Century

1463 words - 6 pages Herman Melville’s Utilization of Bartleby the Scrivener: the Story of Wall Street As a Means of Criticizing Capitalism and Its Crimes Against Humanity Herman Melville's "Bartleby, The Scrivener: A Story of Wall Street" scrutinizes the alienation of labor, the social ideologies and the dehumanizing consequences of the American capitalist society in the 19th century. Bartleby is the main character in the story. The other characters...

How does Dickens convey a portrait of society in 19th century in the first 17 chapters of "Great Expectations"

732 words - 3 pages Dickens paints a portrait of 19th century society by not telling us but showing us what he wants us to see. To show us this he uses characters from the criminal, lower and upper classes to dramatise each class. Dickens shows us the lower classes mainly by use of the Gargery family as his example of a typical lower class family, but also uses a few other people in conjunction with the Gargery's. For example he shows us that there was a lack of...

Jews in the 19th Century

1257 words - 5 pages Jews in the 19th Century During the 19th the status and position of European Jews changed frequently as the rights they had and the way countries tried to gain inequality changed dramatically. At the start of the 19th in France and Germany there was a great deal of anti Semitism between Jews and Christians, the French Christians could...

Imperialism in the 19th century

1745 words - 7 pages There was a great deal of Imperialism in the 19th century, led by mostly westerners from Europe. Imperialism is the act in which one nation extends its rule over another. Imperialism had a substantial effect on the 19th century throughout the entire world by bringing upon changes to many different countries, for better and for worse, especially to Africa.Prior to the nineteenth century, westerners did interfere with many of the affairs...



Start of The Seven Years War.

Jedidiah Strutt and his brother-in-law, William Woollatt, seek a patent for their Derby-rib stocking frame.

Wolfe takes Quebec.

George III becomes the king.

Rousseau brings out his masterpiece, Contrat social.

End of The Seven Years War and The Treaty Of Paris.

Cook sails with English scientists so that they might observe and study the transit of Venus across the sun (June 3rd, 1769) at Tahiti.

At around this time, Blackstone brings out his Commentaries on the Law of England.
A mathematical-instrument maker by the name of James Watt, in 1769, filed a patent for an engine which called for strange things such as condensers and steam jackets; soon, 1784, the Soho Engineering Works was manufacturing pump machines run by steam.

The members of the "Long Parliament" take their seats, it sat for 15 years, until 1785.

December: Boston Tea Party.

This is the year, 1776, that Gibbon gives forth with his first volume of The Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire; Adam Smith, The Wealth of Nations; Jeremy Bentham, Fragments on Government; and Thomas Paine, Common Sense.
March 17th, British evacuate Boston.
July 2nd, The Continental Congress carries a motion for the independence of the 13 states on the east coast of America. Two days later the Declaration of Independence is adopted.

The laws were to be changed in England so that Roman Catholics should have the same rights in England as everyone else. (This move was to bring on the Gordon Riots of 1780.)

In England, the first iron bridge was erected over the Severn.

October 19th, British troops under Cornwallis surrender at Yorktown.

The Paris Peace Treaty 1783.
Henry Cort, an iron master, invented the processes known as "puddling" and "rolling."
December 13th, penal laws against Roman Catholics repealed.

On October 20th, having sat for 15 years, the "Long Parliament" is dissolved.
The Big Bang of the Industrial Revolution occurs in England when, for the first time, steam engines are used to power spinning machinery.

The French court, the envy of and model for foreign courts, was, both literally and figuratively, - bankrupt; States General (like our parliament) is called into session, it had not assembled since 1610 (France, in the intervening years, was ruled by an absolute monarch).

The very first nation wide census was carried out in the U.S. The count was 3,170,000. Surprisingly only a small number was reported to be "foreign born": 350,000 white and 250,000 black had come to the colonies since 1700. Thus the impressive population growth of English America came about not so much to immigration as to the unusually high birth rate: they married early and the infant mortality rate was astonishingly low when compared to that, say, of England.

In January Louis XVI is beheaded.
The European liberalism of the 19th century, was first formally proclaimed in the French constitution of 1791; a theory of liberty, the "Golden Rule of Liberty":
Men are born free and equal in rights, ... Liberty, ... consists in being permitted to do anything which does not injure other people. ... The exercise of the natural rights of each man has not limits except those which guarantee to the other members of society the enjoyment of the same rights."(Articles 1 & 3 of The 1791 French Constitution.)
The trials of the "Reform-martyrs," Thomas Muir (1765-99) was one, who, with others, was transported to Botany Bay. These trials were part of the larger government effort to prosecute editors, nonconformists and radicals who were arguing for Parliamentary reform.

A simple device for separating cotton lint from seeds is patented by Eli Whitney.

The Speenhamland system, named after a village near Newbury, Berkshire, is established. It was a system of poor relief adopted by the magistrates there in 1795, and subsequently established throughout most of rural England.

Jenner perfects a system of vaccination.
A Bavarian by the name of Alois Senefelder, discovering that water and grease did not have an affinity for one another, determined to employ a different printing process by which art work could be relatively and inexpensively reproduced in quantity. Thus, the world was introduced to lithography.

By a parliamentary statute, the torture of suspects and criminals was abolished.
John Adams (1735-1826) replaces George Washington (1732-1799) as the President of the United States.

Malthus brings out his Essay on Population.
Wordsworth and Coleridge jointly publish The Lyrical Ballads; and thus begins, in literature, the English Romantic Movement.

Great Britain and Ireland come together under one legislative body.

Brunel, by 1803, has set up his production line for turning out rigging blocks.
The Louisiana Purchase.

Napoleon becomes emperor of France.

Trevithick adapts the Watt engine and attaches it to a vehicle, and the locomotive comes into being.
The "Third Coalition" against France is formed: Russia and Austria throw in with Britain.
October 21st: Nelson's victory at Trafalgar.
December: The Battle of Austerlitz takes place (Austerlitz is a place located in modern day Czechoslovakia). Napoleon decisively defeated the armies of Russia and Austria, each with its emperor at its head.

England abolishes the slave-trade (in 1833, slavery itself).

Robert Fulton's Clermont proves the practicality of steam power for river craft.

The lawful import of slaves ends in the United States.

Austen brings out Sense and Sensibility.
Lord Wellington is fighting in Spain.

Byron Donkin builds (tin plate having been previously invented) the first canning factory in England, his principle orders coming from the Royal Navy for canned soups and meats used in the war against America.

Napoleon's retreat from Moscow and struggles to retain a hold on central Europe.
In England 13 "Luddites" are hung at the York Assizes.

April: Paris is captured and Bonaparte abdicates.

June 18th: The Battle of Waterloo.
In a further chapter in the history of the "Corn Laws" (they had been around in one form or another since the Middle Ages) the British parliament passed the Act of 1815 which imposed, - much to the satisfaction of British farmland owners - a ban on all corn imports, this with a view to getting the home prices up.

Construction begins on Erie Canal, designed to connect the Great Lakes and the Hudson River (and thus the Atlantic Ocean).
Due to the discoveries of Volta, there comes into being the Voltaic battery.
Robert Owen publishes A New View of Society or Essays on the Formation of the Human Character Preparatory to the Development of a Plan for Gradually Ameliorating the Condition of Mankind.

Civil wars [Simón Bolívar (1783-1830) and the Latin American revolution] sweep over the Spanish New World in waves from 1812 to the early 1820s; driven by both the political theories of Rousseau and the disruptions of civil order in Spain on account of Bonaparte and the resulting peninsular wars.
The war against the Radical Press in England heats up; Habeas Corpus Act is suspended for a whole year as a result of the Spa Fields Riot on December 16th.
Unrest in England, with the Northern and Midland radicals causing sporadic violence and attacks on mills.

Ricardo's, Principles of Political Economy & Taxation.
August 16th: Upon St. Peter's Fields at Manchester England, an angry crowd of 60,000 people is dispersed by sending in the cavalry; in the process people are killed. This event became known as, "Peterloo."
Keats writes Hyperion; Shelley, Promethus Unbound.

Arthur Thistlewood, one of the leaders of the Cato Street Conspiracy (to kill Castlereagh), on May 1st, is hung.
The Missouri Compromise: In 1820 the U.S. Congress passed an act which admitted the State of Maine as slave free state and Missouri as a slave state, thus keeping the number of the slave and anti-slave states equal. By the Missouri Compromise the federal territory above 36 degrees 30 minutes is free; below be slave territory.
A Factory Bill prohibiting children under the age of nine to work in cotton mills is passed in 1819; this is the first of a series of parliamentary bills which were to be passed over the next forty years in a process of law reform which was first prompted by the writings of the legal philosopher, Jeremy Bentham.
During February of 1820, England issues gold ingots ("Ricardos"), freely exchangeable with its paper money. By the following year (1821) England was fully on the gold exchange.

The trial of the Queen, the coronation, the death of Queen Caroline, the second expedition of Parry, and the insurrections in Greece, cover the columns of the periodicals.
Michael Faraday (1791-1867), from a poor family, discovers electromagnetic rotation.

In England, the Anti-slavery Society was formed.

Charles Macintosh develops a process of brushing rubber onto cloth to form an impervious layer. "A factory for mass production was opened in Manchester in 1824, and within a year the men-about-town were wearing Macintoshes in the London rain."
New industries were envisioned: railway, gas, steamship, iron, and coal; companies were being organized, most legitimate,- not all. London was now experiencing a bull market which ran from summer 1824 to autumn 1825. Speculators elbowed in with dreams for sale; a credit crunch and, in turn, an economic disaster followed.

In America, Alpheus Babcock cast the first one-piece iron piano frame.
Economic crash in England.
The first railway opens in the northern part of England, between Stockton and Darling; Stephenson's "Rocket," with a thirteen ton train, gets up a speed of 44 miles per hour.

The inventions of the "Drummond Light" and "Portland Cement," were, as events were to prove, to keep seaman safe. These inventions allowed for the strategic placement of lighthouses on dangerous seashores.

John Walker (1781-1859), a chemist, inventor, born Stockton-on-Tees, in 1827, invented the friction match; they were called "Congreves" (alluding to the Congreve rocket), later named Luicifers, and, eventually, matches.
March 27th: Darwin gives a short talk to the Plinian Society, and communicates two discoveries which he has made: First, "that the ova of the Flustra posses organs of motion; and the second, that the small black globular body hitherto mistaken for the young Fucus Lorius [a seaweed], is in reality the ovum of the pontobdella muricata [a leech that infests skates].
The first allied peace keeping mission, with Admiral Sir Edward Codrington in charge, sailed into Navarino Bay, Turkey, and, on the 20th of October 1827 the Battle of Navarino ensued, which, while lasting only four hours, took the lives of 8,000 Turks and Egyptians; the allies lost only 178 men; this was to be the last of the great sea battles between square sailed fighting ships.

In London a exhibition specifically devoted to machinery is held.
After a new style election campaign, General Jackson becomes the President of the United States; his clear popular mandate ends "the old indirect, oligarchical system forever."

The Emancipation Bill of 1829.
Sir Robert Peel's police make their appearance in London; before this time public tranquillity was maintained by the military forces. With "Peelers" there now existed "an efficient civilian force, of non-partisan character, and armed only with staves."

Two journalists, Wm. Cobbett (1763-1835) and Richard Carlile (1790-1843), are put on trial for articles in the Press. Cobbett at his trial in July was acquitted.
Samuel Morse, a Massachusetts portrait painter devises a workable code.
The introduction of publisher's cloth.
The opening of the first 13 miles of the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad inaugurates railroad passenger travel in the United States.

The First Reform Bill.

In Britain, slavery is outlawed by Parliament. (In 1806 the slave-trade had been abolished.)

The young Queen Victoria takes the English throne.

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