Known Error Database Format Bibliography

Freeman Bibliographical Database

Search or Browse the database

THIS online database is the most comprehensive bibliography of the writings of Charles Darwin ever published. At its core is a revision of R. B. Freeman's pioneering work, The works of Charles Darwin: an annotated bibliographical handlist (2d ed. 1977). Freeman's book is the acknowledged authority for all bibliographic citations of Darwin's publications. It records detailed information for every known Darwin publication, in every known language, up to 1975.1 Permission to reproduce this, together with unpublished additions and corrections by Freeman, was kindly facilitated by The Charles Darwin Trust. Freeman's entries were individually standardized, entered in a database, and known errors and omissions corrected. A set of concise references for all entries was created. The new catalogue retains all of Freeman's original numbers for Darwin publications (e.g. 'F123'). New entries are assigned numbers consecutively from F1806. The database is periodically updated and corrected. Additional or supplementary texts included on this site, such as reviews of Darwin's books, are also recorded in the database and are given an 'A' number. To see a list of all additional items click here.
To submit a suggestion for inclusion or to report an error in the bibliography please email Dr John van Wyhe. We welcome scans or photographs of title pages or other pages of works not otherwise included on this site. (These extracts are not listed on the table of contents page, but can be found on their respective entry pages.)

For a bibliography including works read and cited by Darwin, see the Correspondence of Charles Darwinextended bibliography. See also the Bibliography of works cited [in Darwin Online], i.e. in the editorial notes and introductions, which includes the first complete bibliography of works cited in Darwin's shorter publications. For Darwin's reading notebooks, click here.

The database is searchable under the following fields:

All Fields: searches all the textual (i.e. non tick box) fields in the database.
Identifier: (e.g. Freeman's 'F' number or additional item, 'A' number)
Name(s): author, editor, translator or other contributor(s).
After date: entering a date here restricts the set of returned results to those which are dated after the supplied date. The supplied date may be incomplete, in that it consists only of a year, or a year with month only, or a precise date in the form YYYY-MM-DD
Before date
Title: the "assigned title", where the assigned title is derived by searching database fields in order of priority. Where the entry has an "exact title", this value is chosen in preference, otherwise it will be taken from the attributed title, description, or finally the "name" field if no other choice is available. (If an exact title is present then the assigned title field is not searched.)
Place: place of publication e.g. London.
Publisher: e.g. John Murray.
Periodical: e.g. Gardeners' Chronicle and Agricultural Gazette.
Language(s): e.g. German.
Document type:book, pamphlet, book contribution, periodical contribution, offprint, review.
Storage types: 'Available full text' AND/OR 'Available digital images'. Ticking one or both of these will limit a search to those items whose text, image or both are on Darwin Online.

Record Display

After selecting browse or conducting a search of the database individual records can be viewed. An example is below. (Click the record below, or here, to bring up the actual database record web page.) The URL in the web browser when viewing a particular record is a permanent stable URL, e.g.:

It is possible to jump quickly to another record by altering the identifier in the browser address window (given here in bold for clarity) to another number, e.g.:

After changing the number in the URL hit Enter to bring up the new record for F672.

If the electronic text or image of a particular item in the database is available on Darwin Online, then links are automatically provided on the bibliographical record page as text links, e.g.: TextImagesText & Images

The concise reference

These listings are based on the style used by The Correspondence of Charles Darwin.

Author. Date. Title. [language if not English and exact title not seen] [Translator] Number of volumes. Edition. Issue. Place: Publisher.

Articles and contributions to books:
Author. Date. Title. [Editor or author of main work] Periodical or book title. Number. Volume. (Date): Pages.

The concise reference is used as the record on text documents and search results pages. These are often shortened on the tables of contents pages to save space.

Detailed reference

This is usually the verbatim text from Freeman (unless updated or corrected) which normally includes binding, variants, page numbers and paper size information etc. Freeman's privately printed additions from 1986 have been added under his original entry. (For archival purposes the full original text of Freeman's 2d edition is provided in both text and facsimile image forms.) Additional corrections or additions contributed by others are also entered here, with attribution.

Despite is comprehensiveness and importance, Freeman's work was not straightforward to transfer to a database. He usually gave the title only for the first edition of a work and, to save space and avoid errors, omitted it from all subsequent entries and translations. Many of these titles varied from the original. Rather than leaving the title field blank or inserting that of the first edition, Freeman's heading title has been copied into an 'Attributed title' field in all entries for a particular work. The 'Title' field contains the exact title of a work only if it has been seen by the editors of Darwin Online or was provided by Freeman.

Freeman did not give a number to every physical volume but sometimes to a series comprising multiple books. As each independent item on Darwin Online requires a unique identifier, in these cases Freeman's numbers have been subdivided with decimals as F123.1, F123.2 etc. We are unable to add all editions of Darwin that have appeared since 1977 at this time. However we include selected important publications and new discoveries, printing variants, corrected issue or printing information. To submit a suggestion for inclusion or to report an error in the bibliography please email Dr John van Wyhe.


APS:  American Philosophical Society, Philadelphia. (modified from 'PPAmP')
BL:   British Library, Reference Division, London. (modified from 'L')
BS:  British Library, Lending Division, Boston Spa, Yorkshire.
BSC:  Items recorded from booksellers' catalogues, but not seen.
CLSU:  University of Southern California, Los Angeles.
CtY:   Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut.
CUL:  Cambridge University Library. (modified from 'C')
Darwin Library CUL: Darwin Collection, University Library, Cambridge. (modified from 'CD').
DLC:  Library of Congress, Washington, District of Columbia.
Down House: Down House, Downe, Kent (modified from 'D').
ENL:  National Library of Scotland, Edinburgh.
ICF:  Field Museum of Natural History, Chicago, Illinois.
LB:  Royal National Institute for the Blind, London.
LIC:  Imperial College Library of Science and Technology.
LLS:  Linnean Society of London.
LNH:  British Museum (Natural History), London.
LU:  Senate House, University of London.
LUC:  University College London.
LUI:  Imperial College of Science and Technology, London.
LZ:     Zoological Society of London.
PBN:  Bibliothèque Nationale, Paris.
UT:   University of Toronto, Ontario. (modified from 'T').
ViU:  University of Virginia, Charlottesville.
nd        No date.
Anon.  Anonymous.

(Some of the above abbreviations used in the Freeman bibliographical database have been modified from the original abbreviations used by Freeman. This has been done to make the abbreviations in the database more consistent with others used on Darwin Online and elsewhere in the scholarly literature on Darwin and to make their meanings more informative to a wider variety of readers. Freeman's necessity to save space on the page is no longer necessary in an electronic database. In all cases Freeman's original abbreviation is given at the end of the lines above.)

John van Wyhe


1 The database has been supplemented by the entries from unpublished manuscript corrections by Freeman and those in:
Freeman. 1986. The works of Charles Darwin: an annotated bibliographical handlist. Additions and Corrections to Second Edition of 1977 to 1 January, 1986. University College London: for the author; as well as
Freeman. 1986. Darwin in Chinese. Archives of Natural History 13 (1): 19-24;
P. J. P. Whitehead. 1988. Darwin in Chinese: some additions. Archives of Natural History 15 (1): 61-62;
the bibliography of The Correspondence of Charles Darwin;
and subsequent research by John van Wyhe, Kees Rookmaaker, Angus Carroll, J. David Archibald and other contributors. See acknowledgements.
Freeman's F771a, F1101, F1711, F1650 and F1743a have been deleted as errors. F6 was incorrectly described as a translation of F1.


NOTE: The Freeman text within the Detailed reference field is reproduced with thanks to The Charles Darwin Trust and Dr Mary Whitear for use of the Bibliographical Handlist. Copyright. All rights reserved. For private academic use only. Not for republication or reproduction in whole or in part without the prior written consent of The Charles Darwin Trust, 14 Canonbury Park South London N1 2JJ.

Corrections and additions copyright The Complete Work of Charles Darwin Online - National University of Singapore.

The secret to success lies in climbing the ladder, rather than a single jump skyward. Taking one step at a time requires knowledge to be stored, leveraged and improved upon. In ITIL®, one such tool that helps organizations achieve this success is the Known Error Database (KEDB).

Here you'll find everything you need to know about KEDB, along with real life IT examples from my consulting experience.

What is KEDB?

There are three ITIL® terms that you need to be familiar with to understand KEDB. These include incident, problem and known error.

When you face an unplanned interruption to an IT service, it is referred to as an incident. For example, if your email service goes down without notice from your provider, this could be tagged as an incident.

A problem is the underlying cause of an incident. Simply put, this is the thing that caused the issue in the first place. In the example above, the reason behind the email outage is the problem. Let's say that the root cause of a problem is identified. Now it's no longer a problem, but a known error. For the email incident, the root cause is identified as one of the critical services on the email server which was in hung mode. So, what was once a problem is now a known error.

A KEDB is a database of all such known errors, recorded as they are and when they happened – and they're maintained over time.

Why do you need KEDB?

How exactly does a business justify expending capital and operational costs on the database?

Getting back to the email incident, let's say that the critical service was in hung mode after running a number of diagnostics and carrying out a series of tests. After identifying it, the resolution might have been quicker where the service was stopped and restarted. But to get to the resolution, it took plenty of effort and, more importantly, cut into some precious time. While the diagnostics and resolution were being applied, the email service was down. This could result in penalties imposed by customers, and intangible losses like future business opportunities and customer satisfaction.

However, this organization that provides email services to its customers maintains a KEDB, and this particular incident was recorded. When the email service goes down again, the technical support team can simply refer to the previous outage in the KEDB, and can start diagnosis with the service that caused the issue last time. If it happens to be the same service causing the issue, resolution now happens within fraction of the time. As you can see, this greatly reduces downtime and all other negative effects that stem from service outages. This is KEDB in action!

A KEDB record will have details of the incident, when the outage happened and what was done to resolve it. However, for a speedy resolution, the KEDB must be powerful enough to retrieve relevant records using filters and search keywords. Without a KEDB in place, service management organizations tend to reinvent the wheel time and again, rather than working toward building a mature organization that allocates its funds toward improving services.

Workaround and permanent solution

When there are service outages, there are two ways of restoring them. The first, and most ideal, is a permanent solution. A permanent solution entails a fix that guarantees no more outages, at least on a certain level. The second, and most common, type of restoration is the workaround, which looks for a temporary, alternate solution. A workaround is generally followed by identifying and implementing a permanent solution at a later date.

In the email service outage, restarting the service is a workaround. The technical staff knows that this will solve the issue for the moment (which is of vast importance), but that it is bound to repeat in the future. Before the incident occurs again, it's on the technical team to investigate why the service is unresponsive and to find a permanent solution.

Let's look at another classic example that I have used time and again during trainings – this one really drives home the concepts of workaround and permanent solution. Imagine that the printer in your cabin stops working and you need it right away. You log an incident with your technical staff, stating that you are about to get into a client meeting and you need to print some documents. The support person determines that he is unable to fix the printer in time and provides you a workaround to send your files to a common printer in the foyer.

The workaround helps, as your objective is to get the prints and run into a meeting. But, there's no way you want the hassle of having to do this every time you need to print. So, when the meeting is over, you push for a permanent solution. When you return, your printer is working and there is a note from the support staff stating that the power cable was faulty and has been replaced. This is a permanent solution. And while there's a chance that the new cable could also go faulty, the odds are in your favor.

In a nutshell: Workaround is a temporary fix. Permanent solution is, as the term states, permanent.

Why did I discuss workaround and permanent solution on a post that is aimed at KEDB? Known errors exist because the fix is temporary. The known error database consists of records where a permanent solution does not exist, but a workaround does. For a known error record, if a permanent solution was to be implemented, then the record can be expunged or archived for evidence. Known error records with an implemented permanent solution must not be a part of the KEDB in principle.

This concept is further built upon in the next section where we'll talk about the various process trees for creating, using and archiving known error records.

KEDB in action

Now that you know what a KEDB is and what it contains, let's talk about how and when it gets recorded, used and maintained.

These are the three streams where KEDB is leveraged:

1. When an incident is resolved using temporary means, a known error record is created with the incident summary, description, symptoms and all the steps involved in resolving it.

Suppose a user has reported that MS Outlook application crashes when emails start to download. The technical staff, in order to minimize the service outage, advised the customer to access webmail until the issue is resolved. The details of the incident, along with the symptoms and temporary resolution steps, are to be recorded in a new known error record.

2. When an incident is reported, the support team refers to the KEDB first to check if a workaround exists in the database. If it does, they will refer to the known error record and follow the resolution steps involved. Suppose the fix provided is inaccurate, the support staff can recommend alternate resolution steps to ensure that KEDB is high on quality.

Let's say that at another time and place, MS Outlook application starts to crash. The technical staff can refer to the KEDB to check what was done on previous occasions, and can recommend the workaround to the customer until a permanent solution is in place.

3. If a permanent solution to a known error is identified and implemented, the incident must not happen anymore. So, the known error record is either taken out of the KEDB or archived with a different status. This is done to ensure that the database is optimized with only the known errors, and accessing records does not become cumbersome due to a high volume of known error records.

While the user is accessing email service via webmail, the issue is being investigated to identify that a Bluetooth extension is causing the outlook to crash. The permanent solution is to disable the extension or even uninstall it. This solution is implemented not only on the Outlook that crashed, but on all the systems accessing Outlook, to ensure the same incident doesn't happen again. After implementing and testing the permanent solution, the known error record can either be archived with a pre-defined status or deleted.

ITIL® is a Registered Trade Mark of the Cabinet Office.

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